On September 5, 1821, the newly-elected Senate of the United States of Mexico convened for the first time. The first order of business was the selection of the new government's chief executive, the president, by a secret ballot. Twenty-one of the twenty-four Senators chose Andrew Jackson, the provisional president of the Republic of Mexico and the co-Governor of Jefferson. Since six of the Senators were members of the opposition Liberty Party, at least three of them must have crossed party lines to vote for Jackson. Jackson was immediately sworn in after the Senate's vote, and this established a tradition for the President of the U.S.M. to be inaugurated on September 5th, a tradition that continued until the suspension of democracy in the U.S.M. in 1881.
Jackson himself was inaugurated for a second term on September 5, 1827, and a third on September 5, 1833. Subsequent Mexican presidents inaugurated on September 5 were Miguel Huddleston in 1839, Pedro Hermión in 1845, Hector Niles in 1851, Arthur Conroy in 1857 and 1863, and Omar Kinkaid in 1869 and 1875.
On September 5, 1900, Tsar Michael of the Russian Empire abdicated after a reign of only seven weeks, fleeing to Sweden with the remaining members of the Russian imperial family. Since no claimants to the imperial throne remained in Russia, Michael's abdication marks the end of the Russian Empire.